Fraksinasi dan karakterisasi asap cair dari kayu ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri Teijsm. & Binn.) sebagai pelarut kitosan

Ahmad Budi Junaidi

Abstract


The purpose of this reseach was to study the solubility of chitosan in liquid smoke as a preliminary study of the application of a combination of liquid chitosan as a bioimmunizer and growth booster in plants.Fractionation and characterization of liquid smoke from ulin wood (Eusideroxylon zwageri Teijsm. & Binn.) and its ability test as chitosan solvent have been performed. Fractional distillation done using a set of tools distillation each fraction,fraction 1 (100° C), the fraction 2 (101-120° C), and fraction 3 (121-140°C). The resulting liquid smoke was then measured degree of acidity, the total acid analysis, the specific gravity, chitosan solubility test in liquid smoke. The result of the research showed that the liquid smoke recovery value of fractionation distillation of each fraction was 54.91; 29.39; and 8.8 (%). The result of liquid smoke characterization of each fraction obtained pH value fraction 1, fraction 2, and fraction 3 are respectively 2.33; 2.14; and 2.08, the total acid was 2.97; 4.59; and 8.88 (% g/mL), the specific gravity was 1,005; 1,006; and 1.009, and the phenol content was respectively 2.06; 3.67; and 2.30 (g/L). The solubility of chitosan in liquid smoke increasing with the concentration of each liquid smoke fraction and 5% (v/v) of liquid smoke concentration was able to dissolve chitosan more than 50 g/L.


Keywords


ulin wood; liquid smoke; fractionation distillation; characteristic; chitosan solvent;

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abidin, Z., Jauhari, A., & Afriza, M. H. (2018). Kajian potensi dan pengembangan pengusahaan arang kayu di Desa Ranggang Luar Kecamatan Takisung Kabupaten Tanah Laut Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan. Jurnal Hutan Tropis, 6(2), 108–115. https://doi.org/10.20527/jht.v6i2.5398

Anggraini, S. P., & Yuniningsih, S. (2013). Liquid smoke purification process for benzo (A) pyrene levels lowering on food safety. Journal of Agriculture and Food Technology, 3(12), 1–4.

AOAC. (2005). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (18th ed.). Washington, DC: Association of official analytical chemists.

Badawy, M., & Rabea, E. I. (2011). A biopolymer chitosan and its derivatives as promising antimicrobial agents against plant pathogens and their applications in crop protection. International Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry, 2011, 1–29. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/460381

Berhimpon, S., Montolalu, R. I., Dien, H. I., Mentang, F., & Meko, A. U. I. (2018). Concentration and application methods of liquid smoke for exotic smoked Skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis L.). International Food Research Journal, 25(5), 1864–1869.

Bledzki, A. K., Mamuna, A. A., & Volk, J. (2010). Barley husk and coconut shell reinforced polypropylene composites: The effectof fibre physical, chemical and surface properties. Composites Science and Technology. Vol. 70(2010),pp. 840–846. Composites Science and Technology., 70(5), 840–846. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2010.01.022

Budaraga, I. K., Marlida, Y., Bulanin, U., & Arnim. (2017). Chemical components analysis of Cinnamon liquid smoke with GC MS from various production of different purification method. International Journal of Chemical Technology Research, 10(1), 12–26.

Budaraga, K., Arnim, : Marlida, Y., & Bulanin, U. (2016). Liquid smoke production quality from raw materials variation and different pyrolysis temperature. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, 6(3), 306. https://doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.6.3.737

Darmadji, P. (2002). Optimasi pemurnian asap cair dengan metoda redistilasi. Jurnal Teknologi Pangan dan Industri, 13(3), 267–271.

Desniorita, D., & Maryam, M. (2015). The effect of adding liquid smoke powder to shelf life of sauce. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, 5(6), 457. https://doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.5.6.576

El Hadrami, L R., Adam, I., El Hadrami, & F. Daayf. (2010). Chitosan in plant protection. Marine Drugs, 8(4), 968–987. https://doi.org/10.3390/md8040968

Faisal, M. (2018). A study on the effectiveness of liquid smoke produced from palm kernel shells in inhibiting black pod disease in cacao fruit in vitro. International Journal of Geomate, 14(43), 36–41. https://doi.org/10.21660/2018.43.3531

Flowers, P., Theopold, K., & Langley, R. (2015). Chemistry. Houston, Texas: Rice University.

Hadanu, R., & Apituley, D. A. N. (2016). Volatile compounds detected in coconut shell liquid smoke through pyrolysis at a fractioning temperature of 350-420 celcius. Makara Journal of Science, 20(3), 95–100. https://doi.org/10.7454/mss.v20i3.6239

Himawati. (2010). Pengaruh penambahan asap cair tempurung kelapa destilasi dan redestilasi terhadap sifat kimia, mikrobiologi, dan sensoris ikan pindang layang (decapterus Spp) Selama Penyimpanan. Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta.

Ismail, J., Runtuwene, M. R. J., & Fatimah, F. (2012). Penentuan total fenolik dan uji aktivitas antioksidan pada biji dan kulit buah Pinang Yaki (areca Vestiaria Giseke). Jurnal Ilmiah Sains, 12(2), 84–88.

Junaidi, A. B., Kartini, I., & Rusdiarso, B. (2010). Chitosan preparation with multistage deacetylation of chitin and investigation of its physicochemical properties. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry, 9(3), 369–372. https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.21500

Junaidi, A. B., Santoso, U. T., & Abdullah. (2019). Potential of liquid smoke in wood charcoal production of Ranggang Village Tanah Laut Model. Konversi, 8(1), 39–43.

Kadir, S., Darmadji, P., & Hidayat, C. (2010). Fraksinasi dan identifikasi senyawa volatil pada asap cair tempurung kelapa hibrida. Agritech, 30(2), 57–67.

Killay, A., Nurpudji, A. T., Suryani, A., & Meta, M. (2015). Chitosan as antimicrobial agent and fatty acid absorber in smoked skipjack tuna processed using coconut shell. American Journal of Life Sciences, 3 (2), 93–99. https://doi.org/10.11648/

j.ajls.20150302.16

Lasindrang, M. (2017). Potential of liquid smoke from palm kernel shell as biopreservative to Tuna (Thumnus sp.) fish protein. Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress, 14(1), 59–67.

Lombok, J. Z., Setiaji, B., Trisunaryanti, W., & Wijaya, K. (2014). effect of pyrolisis temperature and distillation on character of coconut shell liquid smoke. Proceeding of International Conference On Research, Implementation And Education of Mathematics and Sciences 201, C87–C96.

Malerba, M., & Cerana, R. (2016). Chitosan effects on plant systems. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17070996

Nguyen, V. T., & Tran, T. H. (2013). Application of chitosan solutions for rice production in Vietnam. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12(4), 382–384. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB12.2884

Noor, E., Luditama, C., & Pari, G. (2014). Isolasi dan pemurnian asap cair berbahan dasar tempurung dan sabut kelapa secara pirolisis dan distilasi. Prosiding Konferensi Nasional Kelapa VIII, 93–102.

Purba, R., Suseno, S. H., Izaki, A. F., & Muttaqin, S. (2014). Application of liquid smoke and chitosan as natural preservatives for tofu and meatballs. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 4(2), 212–217.

Risfaheri, R., Hoerudin, H., & Syakir, M. (2018). Utilization of rice husk for production of multifunctional liquid smoke. Journal of Advanced Agricultural Technologies, 5 (3), 192–197. https://doi.org/10.18178/joaat.5.3.192-197

Rusdi. (2017). Karakteristik asap cair dari tempurung kelapa hasil pirolisis dengan proses distilasi sederhana. Jurnal Pertanian Terpadu, 4(2), 143–157.

Saloko, P. Darmadji, B. Setiaji, & Y. Pranoto. (2014). Antioxidative and antimicrobial activities of liquid smoke nanocapsules using chitosan and maltodextrin and its application on tuna fish preservation. Food Bioscience, 7, 71–79.

Santoso, R. (2016). Characterization of liquid smoke from coconut shell as a natural pesticide for Hexamitodera Semivelutinia Beetle on Clove Trees. International Journal of Applied Chemistry, 12(3), 389–397.

Sari, T. I., Anita, Amalia, & Rahmawati. (2009). Proses pembuatan asap cair (Liquid Smoke) dari limbah industri. Jurnal Teknik Kimia, 16(2), 44–47.

Wartawijaya, A., Kartasujana, I., Kadir, K., & Prawira, S. A. (2005). Atlas kayu indonesia (I). Bogor: Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan.

Waterhouse,. (2002). Determination of total phenolics. in current protocols in food analytical chemistry (Wrolstad R.E., p. I1.1.1-I1.1.4). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Zargar, V., Asghari, M., & Dashti, A. (2015). A review on chitin and chitosan polymers: structure, chemistry, solubility, derivatives, and applications. chemical and biomolecular engineering, 2(3), 204–226. https://doi.org/cben.201400025.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24111/jrihh.v11i2.4861

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




JRIHH INDEXED BY :

       
       


Published by BARISTAND INDUSTRI BANJARBARU (E-ISSN: 2503-0779 dan P-ISSN : 2086-1400).

 Creative Commons License