Pengaruh Fermentasi Bakteri Asam Laktat Terhadap Sifat Fisikokimia Tepung Gadung Modifikasi (Dioscorea hispida)

R. Haryo Bimo Setiarto, Nunuk Widhyastuti

Abstract


Yam (Dioscorea hispida) is one of the tubers belonging to the family dioscoreaceae. Yam tubers not only have high content of carbohydrate, but also contain some toxic compounds such as: cyanogenic glycosides, alkaloids dioscorin, dehydrodioscorin, saponin and sapogenin. Fermentation of yam tubers can affected for physicochemical and amylography characteristics of modified yam flour and reduced toxic compounds. This study was aimed to determine effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation on the physicochemical properties and characteristics of yam flour amilography modification. From the 15 isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum had been selected two isolate (L. plantarum B291 and B307) with the highest amylase enzyme activity to be used as starter fermentation to produce modified yam flour. Fermentation of LAB could reduce levels of HCN on modified yam flour, although decreased levels of HCN was not significant with requirements of SNI. Fermentation of LAB increased levels of protein, fat and lactic acid, but decreased pH value and carbohydrate content in modified yam flour. Based on results of amylography analysis, control of yam flour with shredded without fermentation had the best gelatinization profile because it most resistant about heating.

ABSTRAK

Gadung (Dioscorea hispida) merupakan salah satu jenis umbi-umbian yang tergolong dalam family Dioscoreaceae.  Ubi gadung memiliki kandungan karbohidrat yang tinggi, akan tetapi juga mengandung beberapa senyawa racun berupa glikosida sianogenik, alkaloid dioscorin, dehydrodioscorin, saponin dan sapogenin yang berbahaya bagi kesehatan. Fermentasi umbi gadung dapat mempengaruhi sifat fisikokimia dan amilografi tepung gadung modifikasi serta menurunkan senyawa toksiknya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh bakteri asam laktat (BAL) penghasil amilase terhadap sifat fisikokimia dan amilografi tepung gadung modifikasi. Sebanyak 15 isolat Lactobacillus plantarum telah diseleksi, sehingga diperoleh 2 isolat BAL yaitu L. plantarum B291 dan B307 dengan aktivitas enzim amilase paling tinggi untuk digunakan sebagai starter dalam fermentasi pembuatan tepung gadung modifikasi. Penambahan BAL pada proses fermentasi dapat menurunkan kadar HCN tepung gadung modifikasi, walaupun penurunan kadar HCN yang dihasilkan tidak signifikan dan belum memenuhi persyaratan SNI. Perlakuan fermentasi BAL menyebabkan peningkatan kadar protein, lemak dan asam laktat pada tepung gadung modifikasi, namun berdampak pada penurunan nilai pH dan kadar karbohidratnya. Dari hasil analisis amilografi diketahui bahwa tepung gadung kontrol yang diparut tanpa fermentasi memiliki profil gelatinisasi yang paling baik karena paling tahan panas.


Keywords


amylography; lactic acid bacteria; fermentation; physichochemical; modified yam flour

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abiodun, O.A., Akinoso, R. 2014. Effect of delayed harvesting and pre-treatment methods on the antinutritional contents of trifoliate yam flour. Food Chemistry. 146 : 515–520.

Aboubakar, Njintang, Y.N., Scher, J., Mbofung, C.M.F. 2008. Physicochemical, thermal properties and microstructure of six varieties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) flours and starches. J of Food Eng. 86: 294-305.

Alariya, S.S., Sethi, S., Gupta, S., Lal, G.B. 2013. Amylase activity of a starch degrading bacteria isolated from soil. Arch Appl Sci Res. 5: 15-24.

Amandikwa, C., Iweb, M.O., Uzomaha, A., Olawunia, A.I. 2015. Physicochemical properties of wheat-yam flour composite bread. Nigerian Food Journal. 33: 12–17.

AOAC. Official methods of analysis of association of official analytical chemists (18th ed.) Methods 942.05, 990.03, 920.39, 962.09 Gaithersburg, MD; 2005.

Badan Standarisasi Nasional. 1992. Cara uji makanan dan minuman. Jakarta. Standarisasi Nasional Indonesia.

Badan Standarisasi Nasional. 2011. Tepung mocaf sebagai bahan makanan SNI 7622-2011. Jakarta. BSN.

Bhanwar, S., Ganguli, A. 2014. α-amylase and β-galactosidase production on potato starch waste by Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis isolated from pickled yam. J Sci Ind Res. 73: 324-330.

Falade, K.O., Ayetigbo, O.E. 2015. Effects of annealing, acid hydrolysis and citric acid modifications on physical and functional properties of starches from four yam (Dioscorea spp.) cultivars. Food Hydrocolloids. 43: 529-539.

Huang, H., Jiang, Q., Chen, Y., Li, X., Mao, X., Chen, X., Huang, L., Gao, W. 2016. Preparation, physicoechemical characterization and biological activities of two modified starches from yam (Dioscorea Opposita Thunb.). Food Hydrocolloids. 55: 244-253.

Kumoro, A.C., Hartati, I. 2015. Microwave Assisted Extraction of Dioscorin from Gadung (Dioscorea hispida Dennst) Tuber Flour. Procedia Chemistry. 14: 47 – 55.

Kusnandar, F. 2010. Kimia Pangan Komponen Makro. Jakarta. Dian Rakyat.

Kusumayanti, H., Handayani, N.A., Santosa, H. 2015. Swelling power and water solubility of cassava and sweet potatoes flour. Procedia Environmental Sciences. 23: 164 – 167.

Marston, K., Khouryieh, H., Aramouni, F. 2014. Evaluation of sorghum flour functionality and quality characteristics of gluten-free bread and cake as influenced by ozone treatment. Food Science and Technology International. 63: 250-258.

Marston, K., Khouryieh, H., Aramouni, F. 2016. Effect of heat treatment of sorghum flour on the functional properties of gluten-free bread and cake. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 65: 637-644.

Medoua, G.N., Mbomea, I.L., Agbor-Egbe, T., Mbofung, C.M.F. 2008. Influence of fermentation on some quality characteristics of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) hardened tubers. Food Chemistry. 107: 1180–1186.

Moradi, M., Shariati, P., Tabandeh, F., Yakhchali, B., Khaniki, G.B. 2014. Screening and isolation of powerful amylolytic bacterial strains. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci. 3: 758-768.

Pokhrel, B., Wanjare, P., Singh, S., Purushotham, B., Kumara, S.W.. 2013. Isolation, screening and characterization of promising alfa-amylase producing bacteria from sewage enriched soil. Int J Adv Biotechnol Res. 4: 286-290.

Ramón, A.P., Taschetto, L., Lunelli, F., Mezadri, E.T., Souza, M., Foletto, E.L, Jahn, S.L., Kuhn, R.C., Mazutti, M.A. 2015. Ultrasound-assisted acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of yam (Dioscorea sp.) for the production of fermentable sugars. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 4: 98–102.

Reddy, G., Altaf, M.D., Naveena, B.J., Venkateshwar, M., Kumar, E.V. 2008. Amylolytic bacterial lactic acid fermentation-A review. Biotechnol Adv. 26: 22–34.

Trappey, E.F., Khouryieh, H., Aramouni, F., Herald, T. 2015. Effect of sorghum flour composition and particle size on quality properties of gluten-free bread. Food Science and Technology International. 21: 188-202.

Umoh, E.O., Iwe, M.O. 2014. Effects of Processing on the Nutrient Composition of False Yam (Icacina trichantha) Flour. NIFOJ. 32 (2): 1 – 7.

Winger, M., Khouryieh, H., Aramouni, F., Herald, T.J. 2014. Sorghum flour characterization and evaluation in gluten-free flour tortilla. Journal of Food Quali




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24960/jli.v6i1.1134.61-72

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 Raden Haryo Bimo Setiarto, Nunuk Widhyastuti, Nunuk Widhyastuti


Our journal indexed by:




Copyright © Baristand Industri Padang, 2015. Powered By OJS

Theme design credited to MEV edited by JLI

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License