APLIKASI SERAT ALAM BIDURI (Calotropis gigantea) SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGISI INSULATIF PADA JAKET MUSIM DINGIN

Arif Wibi Sana, Noerati Noerati, Doni Sugiyana, M. Danny Sukardan

Abstract


Bahan pengisi insulatif komersial untuk jaket musim dingin umumnya menggunakan down (bulu angsa) dan batting poliester, tetapi penggunaannya relatif tidak ekonomis dan kurang ramah lingkungan. Serat biduri (Calotropis gigantea) merupakan serat alam dengan morfologi berongga dan ringan sehingga berpotensi menjadi bahan alternatif. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari sifat insulasi termal dan daya tembus udara pada kain multilapis berinsulasi biduri dan membandingkannya terhadap down dan batting poliester. Metode penelitiannya adalah dengan membentuk serat biduri menjadi web dan nonwoven yang difungsikan sebagai lapisan insulatif kemudian disisipkan di antara lapisan dalam (kain poliester) dan lapisan luar (kain nilon water repellent). Serat biduri diuraikan pada mesin bale opener kemudian dibentuk menjadi lapisan web pada mesin cotton selector. Pengikatan web menjadi nonwoven dilakukan dengan metode thermal bonding menggunakan mesin hotpress pada suhu 130 °C selama 1 menit tanpa perlakuan tekanan. Evaluasi dilakukan melalui pengujian menggunakan alat hotplate dan air permeability tester. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai resistansi termal (Rct) tertinggi diperoleh pada kain multilapis berinsulasi web biduri 30 g dan nonwoven biduri tiga lapis pada komposisi (95:5)% dengan nilai masing-masing sebesar 0,168 m2.°C/W dan 0,188 m2.°C/W. Nilai tersebut masih lebih baik dibanding kain multilapis berinsulasi down dan batting poliester yang bernilai masing-masing 0,163 m2.°C/W dan 0,160 m2.°C/W. Daya tembus udara (DTU) paling tinggi diperoleh pada kain multilapis berinsulasi batting poliester dengan nilai 6,34 cm3/cm2/s sedangkan paling rendah diperoleh pada nonwoven biduri 3 lapis-komposisi (80:20)% dengan nilai 1,94 cm3/cm2/s. Nilai Rct kain multilapis berinsulasi biduri meningkat seiring dengan peningkatan ketebalan sedangkan pada nilai DTU berlaku sebaliknya.


Keywords


insulasi panas; jaket musim dingin; kain multilapis; serat biduri

Full Text:

PDF

References


Sukardan, M. D., Natawijaya, D., Prettyanti, P., Cahyadi & Novarini, E. Karakterisasi Serat dari Tanaman Biduri (Calotropis gigantea) dan Identifikasi Kemungkinan Pemanfaatannya sebagai Serat Tekstil. Arena Tekst. 31, 51–62 (2016).

Verma, V. N. The Chemical Study of Calotropis. Int. Lett. Chem. Phys. Astron. 20, 74–90 (2014).

Hassanzadeh, S. & Hasani, H. A Review on Milkweed Fiber Properties as a High-Potential Raw Material in Textile Applications. J. Ind. Text. (2015) doi:10.1177/1528083715620398.

Karthik, T. & Murugan, R. Milkweed - A Potential Sustainable Natural Fibre Crop. in Sustainable Fibres for Fashion Industry vol. 2 111–146 (2016).

Sakthivel, J. C. & Mukhopadhyay, S. Some Studies on Mudar Fibers. J. Ind. Text. 35, 63–76 (2005).

Zhao, Z. dkk. Pre-treatment of Calotropis gigantea fibers with functional plasticizing and toughening auxiliary agents. Text. Res. J. (2019) doi:10.1177/0040517519826885.

Dilli Babu, G., Sivaji Babu, K. & Nanda Kishore, P. Tensile and wear behavior of calotropis gigentea fruit fiber reinforced polyester composites. Procedia Eng. 97, 531–535 (2014).

Muniyasamy, S. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Calotropis Gigantea Stem Fiber-Reinforced Composite Material. 53–57 (2016).

Sayanjali Jasbi, M., Hasani, H., Zadhoush, A. & Safi, S. Effect of alkali treatment on mechanical properties of the green composites reinforced with milkweed fibers. J. Text. Inst. 109, 24–31 (2018).

Ghosh, A., Chakraverty, R. & Sarkar, S. Calotropis Gigantea Linn. - A Complete Busket Of Indian Traditional Medicine. Int. J. Pharm. Res. Sci. 7, 1–17 (2014).

Kori, P. & Alawa, P. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of Calotropis gigantea root, latex extracts. IOSR J. Pharm. 4, 07–11 (2014).

Kumala, S. & Pratiwi, A. A. Efek Antimikroba dari Kapang Endofit Ranting Tanaman Biduri. J. Farm. Indones. 7, 111–120 (2014).

Hardi, J. & Diharnaini, D. Penggunaan Protease dari Getah Biduri dalam Produksi Flavor Udang Windu (Penaeus monodon) [Utilization of Protease from Biduri Sap for Production Windu Shrimp Flavor (Penaeus monodon)]. Online J. Nat. Sci. 3, 39–49 (2014).

Witono, Y. Enzim Biduri Agen Aktif Potensial Untuk Proses Pangan. (Pustaka Radja, 2013).

Phoo, Z. W. M. M. dkk. Evaluation of Indian milkweed (Calotropis gigantea) seed oil as alternative feedstock for biodiesel. Ind. Crops Prod. 54, 226–232 (2014).

Zheng, Y., Cao, E., Zhu, Y., Wang, A. & Hu, H. Perfluorosilane treated Calotropis gigantea fiber: Instant hydrophobic-oleophilic surface with efficient oil-absorbing performance. Chem. Eng. J. 295, 477–483 (2016).

Zheng, Y., Zhu, Y., Wang, A. & Hu, H. Potential of Calotropis gigantea fiber as an absorbent for removal of oil from water. Ind. Crops Prod. 83, 387–390 (2016).

Pusat Komunikasi Publik Kementerian Perindustrian. Rencana Induk Pembangunan Industri Nasional 2015 - 2035. 1–98 http://www.kemenperin.go.id/ripin.pdf (2015) doi:10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004.

Ali, M. E. & Zeitoun, O. M. Discovering and Manufacturing a New Natural Insulating Material Extracted From a Plant Growing Up in Saudi Arabia. J. Eng. Fiber. Fabr. 7, 88–94 (2012).

Guptaa, D. Functional clothing- Definition and classification. Indian J. Fibre Text. Res. 36, 312–326 (2011).

Li, Y., Hsu, J. & Fernie, G. Protective Winter Clothing. (2010).

Bauer, E. Winter Wear Market : Jackets / Coats Expected to be the Dominating Product Type During the Forecast Period : Global Industry Analysis ( 2013 – 2017 ) & Opportunity. https://www.futuremarketinsights.com/reports/winter-wear-market (2018).

Bolz, P. The Right Stuff for Cold Weather. vol. 1 (2005).

Beaudry, F. Sustainable Insulation for Winter Clothes. https://www.thoughtco.com/sustainable-insulation-for-winter-clothes-4114611 (2017).

Fuller, M. E. The structure and properties of down feathers and their use in the outdoor industry. (The University of Leeds, 2015).

Siler, W. Could Humble Milkweed Replace Down Feathers In Your Outdoor Gear ? https://gizmodo.com/could-humble-milkweed-replace-down-feathers-1698295598 (2009).

Crews, P. C., Sievert, S. A., Woeppel, L. T. & Mccullough, E. A. Evaluation of Milkweed Floss as an Insulative Fill Material. Text. Res. J. 61, 203–210 (1991).

Kasturiya, N., Subbulakshmi, M. S., Gupta, S. C. & Raj, H. System Design of Cold Weather Protective Clothing. Def. Sci. J. 49, 457–464 (1999).

Steindhart, E. Determining an Easily Measured Factor of Merit for The Thermal Performance of Jackets. in Measurement and Instrumentation 1–7 (2015).

Bernstien, J. How a Quebec company used a weed to create a one-of-a-kind winter coat Canadians warm , help monarch butterflies. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/quebec-milkweed-winter-coat-1.3804138 (2016).

Hauss, E. The Natural Insulator of the Future : Asclepias Animal-friendly Insulation. http://altitude-blog.com/en/natural-insulator-future-asclepias/ (2019).

Montgomery, M. Possible world first : canadian winter coat uses renewable plant insulation. http://www.rcinet.ca/en/2016/10/13/world-first-canadian-winter-coat-uses-renewable-plant-insulation/ (2016).

Baker, H. The Layering Systems. https://www.blacks.co.uk/blog/2016/09/the-layering-system-a16 (2018).

Oakes, J., Riewe, R., Kelker, D. & Forest, T. Comparison of traditional and manufactured cold weather ensembles. vol. 5 (1995).

Zakriya, G. M. dkk. Design and development of winter over coat using Jute and hollow conjugated polyester non-woven flexible composite. J. Ind. Text. (2016) doi:10.1177/1528083716670314.

ASTM D1518-14. Standard test method for thermal transmittance of textile materials. vol. 94 428–430 (1985).

Song, G. Thermal insulation properties of textiles and clothing. Textiles for cold weather apparel (Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2009). doi:10.1533/9781845697174.1.19.

Rossi, R. M. Cold Weather sports clothing. in Textiles for Sportswear (ed. Shisoo, R.) 197–212 (Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2015).

Rees, W. H. The transmission of heat through textile fabrics. J. Text. Inst. Trans. 32, T149–T165 (1941).

Williams, J. T. Textile for cold weather apparel. (Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2009).

Baxter, S. The thermal conductivity of textiles. Proc. Phys. Soc. (1946) doi:10.1088/0959-5309/45/4/304.

Holmer, I. Textiles for protection against cold. in Textile for protection (ed. Scott, R. A.) 378–397 (Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2005).

Sukmawati, A. Pembuatan dan Karakterisasi Nirtenun Serat Biduri (Calotropis gigantea) untuk Aplikasi Bahan Penyerap Bunyi. (Tesis Program Magister Ilmu dan Teknik Material, Institut Teknologi Bandung, 2018).




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31266/at.v35i1.6050

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Arena Tekstil indexed by:

Science and Technology Index  Dimensions

 Garba Rujukan Digital (GARUDA)


Copyright Arena Tekstil (E-ISSN: 2548-7264, P-ISSN: 0518-4010)

Published by: BALAI BESAR TEKSTIL, Jl. Jenderal Ahmad Yani No. 390, Bandung.

Creative Commons License