ANALISIS KERAGAMAN JAMBU AIR (Syzygium sp.) KOLEKSI KEBUN PLASMA NUTFAH CIBINONG BERDASARKAN MORFOLOGI DAN RAPD (Diversity Analysis of Syzygium sp. from Cibinong Germplasm Garden Based on Morphology and RAPD)

Yuliana Galih Dyan Anggraheni, Eko Binnaryo Mei Adi, Heru Wibowo, Enung Sri Mulyaningsih

Abstract


The high number of Syzygium diversity, especially water apple is caused by crossing pollination that occurred both naturally or by human actions. This research aimed to study morphology and genetic diversity of water apple in Cibinong Germplasm Garden. Five water apples were observed for their morphological andseven for their genetic diversity. Morphological analysis was done through observing the leaves and flower characters while genetic character using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. Data were analyzed using SPSS, XLSTAT, NTSYS-pc version 2.2 and Power marker software. The results showed that based on morphological observation, there were three groups, namely Cincalo merah, Semarang merah, Semarang hijau (I), Jambu air lokal (II) and Sigondrong (III). Based on principal component analysis, stem color near the leaf, leaf bones arrangement and based color of filament became the most characters that contributed to diversity. Genetic analysis using 14 RAPD primers showed three groups, namely Citra (I), Jambu air lokal (II), Semarang hijau, Merah delima, Sigondrong, Semarang merah and Cincalo merah (III). The average number of bands 5,79 and polymorphic bands 4,36 with the mean percentage of polymorphism 72,76%. Four RAPD primers, OPA-5, OPA-9, OPA-17 and OPA-18 provided high Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) value around 0,7.

Keywords: PCA value, Phylogenetic tree, PIC value, RAPD primer, water apple


ABSTRAK

Tingginya keragaman Syzygium, khususnya jambu air disebabkan oleh penyerbukan silang, baik yang terjadi secara alami maupun akibat perbuatan manusia. Ketersediaan informasi keragaman jambu air koleksi Kebun Plasma Nutfah (KPN)  Tanaman Cibinong sampai saat ini belum ada dan belum pernah dilakukan. Tujuan penelitian ini ialah mempelajari keragaman morfologi dan genetik tanaman jambu air koleksi KPN Cibinong.Lima jambu air koleksi KPN diamati keragaman morfologinya dan tujuh jambu air koleksi KPN diamati genetiknya.Analisis morfologi dilakukan dengan pengamatan pada karakter daun dan bunga, sedangkan analisis genetik menggunakan primerRandom Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Data diolah menggunakan perangkat lunak SPSS, XLSTAT, NTSYS-pc versi 2.2 dan Power Marker. Hasil pengamatan morfologi pada lima jambu air diperoleh tiga kelompok yaitu Cincalo merah, Semarang merah, Semarang hijau (I), Jambu air lokal (II) dan Sigondrong (III). Berdasarkan analisis komponen utama, warna batang dekat daun, susunan tulang daun dan warna pangkal tangkai sari menjadi karakter yang paling berkontribusi dalam keragaman. Sementara hasil analisis genetik pada tujuh jambu air menggunakan 14 primer RAPD dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok yaitu Citra (I), Jambu air lokal (II), Semarang hijau, Merah delima, Sigondrong, Semarang merah dan Cincalo merah (III). Rerata jumlah pita sebanyak 5,79 dan rerata polimorfis pita 4,36 dengan rerata persentase polimorfisme sebesar 72,76%. Empat primer RAPD yaitu OPA-5, OPA-9, OPA-17 dan OPA-18 memberikan nilai Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) yang tinggi sebesar 0,7. Analisis morfologi dan genetik dalam penelitian ini diharapkan dapat menjadi dasar dalam perakitan varietas unggul dan konservasi tanaman jambu air di KPN Cibinong.

Kata kunci: jambu air, nilai PCA, nilai PIC, pohon filogenetik, primer RAPD


Keywords


PCA value, Phylogenetic tree; PIC value; RAPD primer; water apple

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36974/jbi.v10i2.5248

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