KARAKTERISASI TEPUNG KOMPOSIT BERBASIS MOCAF DAN KACANG-KACANGAN SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU BISKUIT MP-ASI (Characterization of Composite Flour Based on Mocaf and Beans Flour as Ingredient for Weaning Food)

Lia Ratnawati, Riyanti Ekafitri, Dewi Desnilasari

Abstract


Mocaf flour is able to replace wheat flour as raw material for MP-ASI biscuits (weaning food) because it contains high carbohydrates. Low protein content of mocaf flour requires the addition of bean flour to form composite flour which is suitable for MP-ASI biscuits. The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical, functional and gelatinization properties of composite flour from mocaf and beans. The types of beans used were soybean, mung bean and red bean. Those type of beans flour was added 40% for each composite flour formulation. The results showed that the addition of beans flour into mocaf flour was significantly affected the increase in ash content, protein, fat, solubility, emulsion activity and stability, foam capacity and stability and gelatinization temperature. The addition of beans flour also significantly affected the decrease in starch, amylose content, swelling power, oil absorption capacity and gelatinization profile (peak, breakdown, final and setback viscosity) of the composite flour. Mocaf-mung bean composite flour was recommended as a raw material for making MP-ASI biscuits because it has low solubility and high bulk density and met the Indonesian standard (SNI) of MP-ASI biscuits which requires minimum 6% protein content, maximum 18% fat and maximum 5% dietary fiber.

Keywords: functional properties, gelatinization profile, mocaf flour, physicochemical properties, weaning food.

 

ABSTRAK

Tepung mocaf dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti terigu pada pembuatan biskuit MP-ASI (Makanan Pendamping Air Susu Ibu) karena mengandung karbohidrat yang tinggi. Kadar protein yang rendah dari tepung mocaf memerlukan penambahan tepung kacang-kacangan sebagai sumber protein sehingga membentuk tepung komposit yang sesuai untuk bahan baku biskuit MP-ASI. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui karakteristik sifat fisikokimia, fungsional dan profil gelatinisasi dari tepung komposit mocaf dan kacang-kacangan. Jenis kacang-kacangan yang digunakan adalah kedelai, kacang hijau dan kacang merah.Setiap jenis tepung kacang-kacangan ditambahkan sebesar 40% untuk masing-masing formulasi tepung komposit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan tepung kedelai, kacang hijau dan kacang merah secara signifikan berpengaruh terhadap peningkatan kadar abu, protein, lemak, kelarutan, aktivitas dan stabilitas emulsi, kapasitas dan stabilitas foam dan suhu gelatinisasi. Penambahan tepung kacang-kacangan pada tepung mocaf juga berpengaruh signifikan terhadap penurunan kadar pati, amilosa, swelling power, kapasitas penyerapan minyak serta profil gelatinisasi (viskositas puncak, breakdown, akhir dan setback) dari tepung komposit yang dihasilkan. Tepung komposit mocaf-kacang hijau adalah yang direkomendasikan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan biskuit MP-ASI karena memiliki kelarutan yang rendah dan densitas kamba yang tinggi serta memenuhi persyaratan SNI biskuit MP-ASI yang mensyaratkan kandungan protein minimal 6%, lemak maksimal 18% dan serat pangan maksimal 5%.

Kata kunci: biskuit MP-ASI, profil gelatinisasi, sifat fisikokimia, sifat fungsional, tepung mocaf.


Keywords


functional properties; gelatinization profile; mocaf flour; physicochemical properties; weaning food

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.36974/jbi.v10i2.4987

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